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1st January 1970
[Scales of Justice]

Bouvier's Maxims of Law

When the law gives anything, it gives a remedy for the same.

A l'impossible nul n'est tenu. No one is bound to do what is impossible. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 601.

Actor qui contra regulam quid adduxit, non est audiendus. He ought not to be heard who advances a proposition contrary to the rules of law.

Aequitas agit in personam. Equity acts upon the person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3733.

Aequum et bonum, est lex legum. What is good and equal, is the law of laws. Hob. 224.

Affirmati, non neganti incumbit probatio. The proof lies upon him who affirms, not on him who denies.

Aliud est celare, aliud tacere. To conceal is one thing, to be silent another.

Animus ad se omne jus ducit. It is to the intention that all law applies.

Animus moninis est anima scripti. The intention of the party is the soul of the instrument. 3 Bulstr. 67.

Argumentum ab impossibili plurmum valet in lege. An argument deduced from authority great avails in law. Co. Litt. 92.

Argumentum ab authoritate est fortissimum in lege. An argument drawn from authority is the strongest in law. Co. Litt. 254.

Argumentum simili valet in lege. An argument drawn from a similar case, or analogy, avails in law. Co. Litt. 191.

Bona fides non patitur, ut bis idem exigatur. Natural equity or good faith do not allow us to demand twice the payment of the same thing. Dig. 50, 17, 57.

Bonum defendentis ex integr caus, malum ex quolibet defectu. The good of a defendant arises from a perfect case, his harm from some defect. 11 Co. 68.

Bonum judex secundum aequum et bonum judicat, et aequitatem stricto juri praefert. A good judge decides according to justice and right, and prefers equity to strict law. Co. Litt. 24.

Bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. Necessary good is not good beyond the bounds of necessity. Hob. 144.

Catalla just possessa amitti non possunt. Chattels justly possessed cannot be lost. Jenk. Cent. 28.

Catalla repuntantur inter minima in lege. Chattels are considered in law among the minor things. Jenk Cent. 52.

Causa proxima, non remota spectatur. The immediate, and not the remote cause, is to be considered. Bac. Max. Reg. 1.

Caveat emptor. Let the purchaser beware.

Charta de non ente non valet. A charter or deed of a thing not in being, is not valid. Co. Litt. 36.

Chirographum apud debitorem repertum praesumitur solutum. A deed or bond found with the debtor is presumed to be paid.

Communis error facit jus. A common error makes law. What was af first ellegal, being repeated many times, is presumed to have acquired the force of usage, and then it would be wrong to depart from it. The converse of this maxim is communis error no facit just. A common error does not make law.

Confessio facta in judicio omni probatione major est. A confession made in court is of greater effect than any proof. Jenk. Cent. 102; 11 Co. 30.

Confirmare nemo potest priusquam just ei acciderit. No one can confirm before the right accrues to him. 10 Co. 48.

Consensus facit legem. Consent makes the law. A contract is a law between the parties, which can acquire force only by consent.

Consensus tollit errorem. Consent removes or obviates a mistake. Co. Litt. 126.

Consentientes et agentes pari poen plectentur. Those consenting and those perpetrating are embraced in the same punishment. 5 Co. 80.

Consilii, non fraudulenti, nulla est obligatio. Advice, unless fraudulent, does not create an obligation.

Constructio contra rationem introducta, potius usurpatio quam consuetudo appellari debet. A custom introduced against reason ought rather to be called an usurpation than a custom. Co. Litt. 113.

Construction legis non facit injuriam. The construction of law works not an injury. Co. Litt. 183; Broom's Max. 259.

Consuetudo est altera lex. Custom is another law. 4 Co. 21.

Consuetudo loci observanda est. The custom of the place is to be observed. 6 Co. 67.

Consuetudo praescripta et legitima vincit legem. A prescriptive and legitimate custom overcomes the law. Co. Litt. 113.

Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. A contemporaneous exposition is the best and most powerful in the law. 2 Co. Inst. 11.

Contr negantem principia non est disputandum. There is no disputing against or denying principles. Co. Litt. 43.

Contr non volentem agere nulla currit praescriptio. No prescription runs against a person unable to act. Broom's Max. 398.

Contr veritatem lex numquam aliquid permittit. The law never suffers anything contrary to truth. 2 Co. Inst. 252. But sometimes it allows a conclusive presumption in opposition to truth. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3061.

Contractus legem ex conventione accipiunt. The agreement of the parties makes the law of the contract. Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6.

Contractus ex turpi caus, vel contr bonos mores nullus est. A contract founded on a base and unlawful consideration, or against good morals, is null. Hob. 167; Dig. 2, 14, 27, 4.

Conventio vincit legem. The agreement of the parties overcomes or prevails against the law. Story, Ag. See Dig. 16, 3, 1, 6.

Copulatio verborum indicat acceptionem in eodem sensu. Coupling words together shows that they ought to be understood in the same sense. Bacom's Max. in Reg. 3.

Cujus est commodum ejus debet esse incommodum. He who receives the benefit should also bear the disadvantage.

Cujus est dare ejus est disponere. He who has a right to give, has the right to dispose of the gift.

Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consult dati donatio est. Whoever pays by mistake what he does not owe, may recover it back; but he who pays, knowing he owes nothing; is presumed to give.

Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad caelum. He who owns the soil, owns up to the sky. Co. Litt. 4 a; Broom's Max. 172; Shep. To. 90; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 15, 70.

Cujus est divisio alterius est electio. Which ever of two parties has the division, the other has the choice. Co. Litt. 166.

Cujusque rei potissima pars principium est. The principal part of everything is the beginning. Dig. 1, 2, 1; 10 Co. 49.

Culpa est immiscere se rei ad se non pertinenti. It is a fault to meddle with what does not belong to or does not concern you. Dig. 50, 17, 36.

Currit tempus contra desides et sui juris contemptores. Time runs against the slothful and those who neglect their rights.

Cursus curiae est lex curiae. The practice of the court is the law of the court. 3 Buls. 53.

De fide et officio judicis non recipitur quaestio; sed de scientia, sive error sit juris sive facti. Of the credit and duty of a judge, no question can arise; but it is otherwise respecting his knowledge, whether he be mistaken as to the law or fact. Bacon's max. Reg. 17.

De jure judices, de facto juratores, respondent. The judges answer to the law, the jury to the facts.

Debet esse finis litium. There ought to be an end of law suits. Jenk. Cent. 61.

Debet qui juri subjacere ubi delinquit. Every one ought to be subject to the law of the place where he offends. 3 Co. Inst. 34.

Debile fundamentum, fallit opus. Where there is a weak foundation, the work falls. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2068.

Debita sequuntur personam debitoris. Debts follow the person of the. debtor. Story, Confl. of Laws, 362.

Debitor non praesumitur donare. A debtor is not presumed to make a gift. See 1 Kames' Eq. 212; Dig. 50, 16, 108.

Debitum et contractus non sunt nullius loci. Debt and contract are of no particular place.

Derativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva. The power which is derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.

Derogatur legi, cum pars detrahitur; abrogatur legi, cum prorsus tollitur. To derogate from a law is to enact something contrary to it; to abrogate a law, is to abolish it entirely. Dig. 50, 16, 102. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 91.

Designatio unius est exclusio alterius, et expressum facit cessare tacitum. The appointment or designation of one is the exclusion of another; and that expressed makes that which is implied cease. Co. Litt. 210.

Dies inceptus pro completo habetur. The day of undertaking or commencement of the business is held as complete.

Dies incertus pro conditione habetur. A day uncertain is held as a condition.

Disparata non debent jungi. Unequal things ought not to be joined. Jenk. Cent. 24.

Dispensatio est vulnus, quod vulnerat jus commune. A dispensation is a wound which wounds a common right. Dav. 69.

Dissimilum dissimiles est ratio. Of disimilars the rule is dissimilar. Co. Litt. 191.

Divinatio non interpretatio est, quae omnino recedit a litera. It is a guess not interpretation which altogether departs from the letter. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 3, p. 47.

Dolosus versatur generalibus. A deceiver deals in generals. 2 Co. 34.

Dolus auctoris non nocet successori. The fraud of a possessor does not prejudice the successor.

Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium. Every man's house is his castle. 5 Rep. 92.

Domus tutissimum cuique refugium atque receptaculum. The habitation of each one is an inviolable asylum for him. Dig. 2, 4, 18.

Donatio perficitur possesione accipientis. A gift is rendered complete by the possession of the receiver. See 1 Bouv. Innt. n. 712; 2 John. 52; 2 Leigh, 337.

Donatio non praesumitur. A gift is not presumed.

Donatur nunquam desinit possidere antequam donatarius incipiat possidere. He that gives never ceases to possess until he that receives begins to possess. Dyer, 281.

Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere. Two cannot possess one thing each in entirety. Co. Litt. 368.

Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat. The burden of the proof lies upon him who affirms, not he who denies. Dig. 22, 3, 2; Tait on Ev. 1; 1 Phil. Ev. 194; 1 Greenl. Ev. 74; 3 Louis. R. 83; 2 Dan. Pr. 408; 4 Bouv Inst. n. 4411.

Ei nihil turpe, cui nihil satis. To whom nothing is base, nothing is sufficient. 4 Co. Inst. 53.

Ejus est non nolle, qui potest velle. He who may consent tacitly, may consent expressly. Dig. 50, 17, 8.

Ejus est periculum cujus est dominium aut commodum. He who has the risk has the dominion or advantage.

Elect un vi, non datur recursus ad alteram. When there is concurrence of means, he who has chosen one cannot have recourse to another. 10 Toull. n. 170.

Electio semel facta, et placitum testatum, non patitur regressum. Election once made, and plea witnessed, suffers not a recall. Co. Litt. 146.

Electiones fiant rite et libere sine interruptione aliqua. Elections should be made in due form andfreely, without any interruption. 2 Co. Inst. 169.

Enumeratio infirmat regulam in casibus non enumeratis. Enumeration affirms the rule in cases not enumerated. Bac. Aph. 17.

Equality is equity. Francis' Max., Max. 3; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3725.

Equity suffers not a right without a remedy. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726.

Equity looks upon that as done, which ought to be done. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3729; 1 Fonbl. Eq. b. 1, ch. 6, s. 9, note; 3 Wheat. 563.

Error fucatus nud veritate in multis est probabilior; et saepenumero rationibus vincit veritatem error. Error artfully colored is in many things more probable than naked truth; and frequently error conquers truth and reasoning. 2 Co. 73.

Error juris nocet. Error of law is injurious. See 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828.

Error qui non resistitur, approbatur. An error not resisted is approved. Doct. & Stud. c. 70.

Error scribentis nocere non debet. An error made by a clerk ought not to injure; a clerical error may be corrected.

Errores ad sua principia referre, est refellere. To refer errors to their origin is to refute them. 3 Co. Inst. 15.

Est autem vis legem simulans. Violence may also put on the mask of law.

Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio. The best interpration is made from antecedents and consequents. 2 Co. Inst. 317.

Ex diuturnitate temporis, amnia praesumuntur solemniter esse acta. From length of time, all things are presumed to have been done in due form. Co. Litt. 6; 1 Greenl. Ev. 20.

Ex dolo malo non oritur action. Out of fraud no action arises. Cowper, 343; Broom's Max. 349.

Ex facto jus oritur. Law arises out of fact; that is, its application must be to facts.

Ex malificio non oritur contractus. A contract cannot arise out of an act radically wrong and illegal. Broom's Max. 851.

Ex multitudine signorum, colligitur identitas vera. From the great number of signs true identity may be ascertained. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 25.

Ex nudo pacto non oritur action. No actions arise on a naked contract without a consideration. See Nudum Pactum.

Ex tota materia emergat resolutio. The construction or resolution should arise out of the whole subject matter.

Ex turpi causa non oritur action. No action arises out of an immoral consideration.

Ex turpi contractu non oritur actio. No action arises on an immoral contract.

Ex uno disces omnes. From one thing you can discern all.

Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus. A wrong in capital cases is excused or palliated which would not be so in civil matters. Bacon's Max. Reg. 7.

Exceptio firmat regulam in contrarium. The exception affirms the rule in contrary cases. Bac. Aph. 17.

Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. The exception affirms the rule in cases not excepted. Bac. Aph. 17.

Exceptio nulla est versus actionem quae exceptionem perimit. There can be no plea against an action which entirely destroys the plea. Jenk. Cent. 106.

Exceptio probat regulam de rebus non exceptio. An exception proves the rule concerning things not excepted. 11 Co. 41.

Exceptio quoque regulam declarat. The exception also declares the rule. Bac. Aph. 17.

Exceptio semper ultima ponenda est. An exception is always to be put last. 9 Co. 53.

Executio est finis et fructus legis. An execution is the end and the first fruit ofthe law. Co. Litt. 259.

Executio juris non habet injuriam. The execution of the law causes no injury. 2 Co. Inst. 482; Broom's Max. 57.

Exempla illustrant non restringunt legem. Examples illustrate and do not restrict the law. Co. Litt. 24.

Expedit reipublicae ut sit finis litium. It is for the public good that there be an end of litigation. Co. Litt. 303.

Expressa nocent, non expressa non nocent. Things expressed may be prejudicial; things not expressed are not. See Dig. 50, 17, 195.

Expressio eorum quae tacite insunt nihil operatur. The expression of those things which are tacitly implied operates nothing.

Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another.

Expressum facit cessare tacitum. What is expressed renders what is implied silent.

Extra legem positus est civiliter mortuus. One out of the pale of the law, (an outlaw,) is civilly dead.

Extra territorium jus dicenti non paretur impune. One who exercises jurisdiction out of his territory is not obeyed with impunity.

Facta sunt potentiora verbis. Facts are more powerful than words.

Factum judice quod ad ujus officium non spectat, non ratum est. An act of a judge which does not relate to his office, is of no force. 10 Co. 76.

Factum negantis nulla probatio. Negative facts are not proof.

Factum non dictur quod non perseverat. It cannot be called a deed which does not hold out or persevere. 5 Co. 96.

Factum unius alteri nocere non debet. The deed of one should not hurt the other. Co. Litt. 152.

Facultas probationum non est angustanda. The faculty or right of offering proof is not to be narrowed. 4 Co. Inst. 279.

Falsa ortho graphia, sive falsa grammatica, non vitiat concessionem. False spelling or false grammar do not vitiate a grant. 9 Co. 48; Sheph. To. 55.

Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus. False in one thing, false in everything. 1 Sumn. 356.

Fiat justitia ruat caelum. Let justice be done, though the heavens should fall.

Felonia implicatur in quolibet proditione. Felony is included or implied in every treason. 3 Co. Inst. 15.

Festinatio justitiae est noverca infortunii. The hurrying of justice is the stepmother of misfortune. Hob. 97.

Fictio est contra veritatem, sed pro veritate habetur. Fiction is aginst the truth, but it is to have truth.

Finis rei attendendus est. The end of a thing is to be attended to. 3 Co. Inst. 51.

Finis finem litibus imponit. The end puts an end to litigation. 3 Inst. 78.

Finis unius diei est principium alterius. The end of one day is the beginning of another. 2 Buls. 305.

Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis. The disposition of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man. Co. Litt. 102.

Flumina et protus publica sunt, ideoque jus piscandi omnibus commune est. Rivers and ports are public, therefore the right of fishing there is common to all.

Faemina ab omnibus officiis civilibus vel publicis remotae sunt. Women are excluded from all civil and public charges or offices. Dig. 50, 17, 2.

Forma legalis forma essentialis. Legal form is essential form. 10 Co. 100.

Forma non observata, inferiur adnullatio actus. When form is not observed a nullity of the act is inferred. 12 Co. 7.

Forstellarius est pauperum depressor, et totius communitatis et patriae publicus inimicus. A forestaller is an oppressor of the poor, and a public enemy to the whole community and the country. 3 Co. Inst. 196.

Fortior est custodia legis quam hominis. The custody of the law is stronger than that of man. 2 Roll. R. 325.

Fortior et potentior est dispositio legis quam hominis. The disposition of the law is stronger and more powerful than that of man. Co Litt. 234.

Fraus est celare fraudem. It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 1 Vern. 270.

Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed. Cro. Car. 550.

Fraus et dolus nemini patrocianari debent. Fraud and deceit should excuse no man. 3 Co. 78.

Fraus et jus numquam cohabitant. Fraud and justice never agree together. Wing. 680.

Fraus latet in generalibus. Fraud lies hid in general expressions.

Fraus meretur fraudem. Fraud deserves fraud. Plow. 100. This is very doubtful morality.

Fructus pendentes pars fundi videntur. Hanging fruits make part of the land. Dig. 6, 1, 44; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578. See Larceny.

Fructus perceptos villae non esse constat. Gathered fruits do not make a part of the house. Dig. 19, 1, 17, 1; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1578.

Frustr est potentia quae numcquam venit in actum. The power which never comes to be exercised is vain. 2 Co. 51.

Frustr feruntur legis nisi subditis et obedientibus. Laws are made to no purpose unless for those who are subject and obedient. 7 Co. 13.

Frustr legis auxilium quaerit qui in legem committit. Vainly does he who offends against the law, seek the help of the law.

Furtum non est ubi initium habet detentionis per dominum rei. It is not theft where the commencement of the detention arises through the owner of the thing. 3 Co. Inst. 107.

Generale tantum valet in generalibus, quanium singulare singulis. What is general prevails or is worth as much among things general, as what is particular among things particular. 11 Co. 59.

Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general expression is to be construed generally. 8 co. 116.

Generale nihil certum implicat. A general expression implies nothing certain. 2 Co. 34.

Generalia sunt praeponenda singularibus. General things are to be put before particular things.

Generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. General words are understood in a general sense. 3 Co. Inst. 76.

Generalis clausula non porrigitur ad ea quae antea specialiter sunt comprehensa. A general clause does not extend to those things which are previously provided for specially. 8 Co. 154.

He who has committed iniquity, shall not have equity. Francis' Max., Max. 2.

He who will have equity done to him, must do equity to the same person. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3723.

Hominum caus jus constitutum est. Law is established for the benefit of man.

Id quod nostrum est, sine facto nostro ad alium transferi non potest. What belongs to us cannot be transferred to another without our consent. Dig. 50, 17, 11. But this must be understood with this qualification, that the government may take property for public use, paying the owner its value. The title to property may also be acquired, with the consent of the owner, by a judgment of a competent tribunal.

Id certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which may be rendered certain. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 929; 2 Bl. Com. 143; 4 Kernt com. 462; 4 Pick 179.

Idem agens et patiens esse non potest. One cannot be agent and patient, in the same matter. Jenk. Cent. 40.

Idem est facere, et nolle prohibere cum possis. It is the same thing to do a thing as not to prohibit it when in your power. 3 Co. Inst. 178.

Idem est scire aut scire debet aut potuisse. To be able to know is the same as to know. This maxim is applied to the duty of every one to know the law.

Idem non esse et non apparet. It is the same thing not to exist and not to appear. Jenk. Cent. 207.

Identitas vera colligitur ex multitudine signorum. True identity is collected from a number of signs.

Ignorantia excusatur, non juris sed facti. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not ignorance of law. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not ignorance of law. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3828.

Ignorantia facti excusat, ignorantia juris non excusat. Ignorance of facts excuses, ignorance of law does not excuse. 1 Co. 177; 4 Bouv. Inst. n 3828. See Ignorance.

Ignorantia judicis est calamitas innocentis. The ignorance of the judge is the misforture of the innocent. 2 Co. Inst. 591.

Illud quod alias licitum non est necessitas facit licitum, et necessitas inducit privilegium quod jure privatur. That which is not otherwise permitted, necessity allows, and necessity makes a privilege which supersedes the law. 10 Co. 61.

Imperitia culpae annumeratur. Ignorance, or want of skill, is considered a negligence, for which one who professes skill is responsible. Dig. 50, 17, 132; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1004.

Impersonalitas non concludit nec ligat. Impersonality neither concludes nor binds. Co. Litt. 352.

Impotentia excusat legem. Impossibility excuses the law. Co. Litt. 29.

Impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Impunity offers a continual bait to a delinquent. 4 Co. 45.

In alternativis electio est debitoris. In alternatives there is an election of the debtor.

In aequali jure melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties have equal rights, the condition of the possessor is the better. Mitf. Eq. Pl. 215; Jer. Eq. Jur. 285; 1 Madd. Ch. Pr. 170; Dig. 50, 17, 128. Plowd. 296.

In contractibus, benigna; in testamentis, benignior; in restitutionibus, benignissima interpretatio facienda est. In contracts, the interpretation or construction should be liberal; in wills, more liberal; in restitutions, more liberal. Co. Litt. 112.

In conventibus contrahensium voluntatem potius quam verba spectari placuit. In the agreements of the contracting parties, the rule is to regard the intention rather than the words. Dig. 50, 16, 219.

In criminalibus, probationes bedent esse luce clariores. In criminal cases, the proofs ought to be clearer than the light. 3 Co. inst. 210.

In criminalibus sufficit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto paris gradus. In criminal cases a general intention is sufficient, when there is an act of equal or corresponding degree. Bacon's Max. Reg. 15.

In fictione juris, semper subsistit aequitas. In a fiction of law, equity always subsists. 11 Co. 51.

In judicio non creditur nisi juratis. In law none is credited unless he is sworn. All the facts must when established, by witnesses, be under oath or affirmation. Cro. Car. 64.

In omnibus contractibus, sive nominatis sive innominatis, permutatio continetur. In every contract, whether nominate or innominate, there is implied a consideration.

In omnibus quidem, maxim tamen in jure, aequitas spectanda sit. In all affairs, and principally in those which concern the administration of justice, the rules of equity ought to be followed. Dig. 50, 17, 90.

In omnibus obligationibus, in quibus dies non ponitar, praesenti die debutur. In all obligations when no time is fixed for the payment, the thing is due immediately. Dig. 50, 17, 14.

In praesentia majoris potestatis, minor potestas cessat. In the presence of the superior power, the minor power ceases. Jenk. Cent. 214.

In pari causa possessor potior haberi debet. When two parties have equal rights, the advantage is always in favor of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 128.

In pari causa possessor potior est. In an equal case, better is the condition of the possessor. Dig. 50, 17, 128; Poth. Vente, n. 320; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 952.

In pari delicto melior est conditio possidentis. When the parties are equally in the wrong, the condition of the possessor is better. 11 Wheat. 258; 3 Cranch 244; Cowp. 341; Broom's Max. 325; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3724.

In traditionibus scriptorum non quod dictum est, sed quod gestum est, inscpicitur. In the delivery of writing, not what is said, but what is done is to be considered. 9 co. 137.

Infinitum in jure reprobatur. That which is infinite or endless is reprehensible in law. 9 Co. 45.

Iniquum est alios permittere, alios inhibere mercaturam. It is inequitable to permit some to trade, and to prohibit others. 3 Co. Inst. 181.

Iniquum est ingenuis hominibus non esse liberam rerum suarum alienationem. It is against equity to deprive freeman of the free disposal of their own property. Co. Litt. 223. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 455, 460.

Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni. Intentions ought to be subservient to the laws, not the laws to intentions. Co. Litt. 314.

Intentio mea imponit nomen operi meo. My intent gives a name to my act. Hob. 123.

Interest reipublicae res judicatas non rescindi. It concerns the common wealth that things adjudged be not rescinded. Vide Res judicata.

Interest reipublicae quod homines conserventur. It concerns the commonwealth that we be preserved. 12 Co. 62. Interest reipublicae ut qualibet re su bene utatur. it concerns the commonwealth that every one use his property properly. 6 Co. 37.

Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium. In concerns the commonwealth that there be an end of law suits. Co. Litt. 303.

Invito beneficium non datur. No one is obliged to accept a benefit against his consent. Dig. 50, 17, 69. But if he does not dissent he will be considered as assenting. Vide Assent.

Ipsae legis cupiunt ut jure regantur. The laws themselves require that they should be governed by right. Co. Litt. 174.

Judex non reddat plus quam quod petens ipse requireat. The judge does demand more than the plaintiff demands. 2 Inst. 286.

Judici officium suum excedenti non paretur. To a judge who exceeds his office or jurisdiction no obedience is due. Jenk. Cent. 139.

Judici satis paena est quod Deum habet ultorem. It is punishment enough for a judge that he is responsible to God. 1 Leon. 295.

Judicium non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. A judgment given by an improper judge is of no moment. 11 Co. 76.

Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A judgment is always taken for truth. 2 Co. Inst. 380.

Jura naturae sunt immutabilia. The laws of nature are unchangeable.

Jura eodem modo distruuntur quo constituuntur. Laws are abrogated or repealed by the same means by which they are made.

Juramentum est indivisibile, et non est admittendum in parte verum et in parte falsam. An oath is indivisible, it cannot be in part true and in part false.

Jurato creditur in judicio. He who makes oath is to be believed in judgment.

Jurare est Deum in testum vocare, et est actus divini cultus. To swear is to call God to witness, and is an act of religion. 3 Co. Inst. 165. Vide 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3180, note; 1 Benth. Rat. of Jud. Ev. 376, 371, note.

Jus descendit et non terra. A right descends, not the land. Co. Litt. 345.

Jus est ars boni et aequi. Law is the science of what is good and evil. Dig. 1, 1, 1, l.

Jus publicum privatorum pactis mutari non potest. A public right cannot be changed by private agreement.

Jus superveniens auctori accressit successors. A right owing to a possessor accrues to a successor.

Justitia nemine neganda est. Justice is not to be denied. Jenk. Cent. 178.

Justitia non est neganda, non differenda. Justice is not to be denied nor delayed. Jenk. Cent. 93.

Lata culpa dolo aequiparatur. Gross negligence is equal to fraud.

Le contrat fait la loi. The contract makes the law.

Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. Subsequent laws repeal those before enacted to the contrary. 2 Rol. R. 410; 11 Co. 626, 630.

Leges humanae nascuntur, vivunt et moriuntur. Human laws are born, live and die. 7 co. 25.

Leges non verbis sed regus sunt impositae. Laws, not words, are imposed on things. 10 Co. 101.

Legibus sumptis disinentibus, lege naturae utendum est. When laws imposed by the state fail, we must act by the law of nature. 2 Roll. R. 298.

Legis constructio non facit injuriam. The construction of law does no wrong. Co. Litt. 183.

Legis figendi et refigendi consuetudo periculosissima est. The custom of fixing and refixing (making and annulling) laws is most dangerous. 4 Co. Ad. Lect.

Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The construction of law obtains the force of law.

Legitime imperanti parere necesse est. One who commands lawfully must be obeyed. Jenk. Cent. 120.

Les fictions naissent de la loi, et non la loi des fictions. Fictions arise from the law, and not law from fictions.

Lex aliquando sequitur aequitatem. The law sometimes follows equity. 3 Wils. 119.

Lex aequitate guadet; appetit perfectum; est norma recti. The law delights in equity; it covets perfection; it is a rule of right. Jenk. Cent. 36.

Lex beneficialis rei consimili remedium praestat. A beneficial law affords a remedy in a similar case. 2 Co. Inst. 689.

Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quam publicum malum. The law would rather tolerate a private wrong than a public evil. Co. Litt. 152.

Lex de futuro, judex de praeterito. The law provides for the future, the judge for the past.

Lex deficere non potest in justiti exhibenda . The law ought not to fail in dispensing justice. Co. Litt. 197.

Lex dilationes semper exhorret. The law always abhors delay. 2 Co. Inst. 240.

Lex est ab aeterno. The law is from everlasting.

Lex est dictamen rationis. Law is the dictate of reason. Jenk. Cent. 117.

Lex est norma recti. Law is a rule of right.

Lex est ratio summa, quae jubet quae sunt utilia et necessaria, et contraria prohibet. Law is the perfection of reason, which commands what is useful and necessary and forbids the contrary. Co. Litt. 319.

Lex est sanctio sancta, jubens honesta, et prohibens contraria. Law is a scared sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the contrary. 2 Co. Inst. 587.

Lex fingit ubi subsistit aequitas. Law feigns where equity subsists. 11 Co. 90.

Lex necessitatis est lex temporis, i.e. instantis. The law of necessity is the law of time, that is, time present. Hob. 159.

Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutilia peragenda. The law forces no one to do vain or useless things.

Lex nemini facit injuriam. The law does wrong to no one.

lex nemini operatur iniquum, nemini facit injuriam. The law never works an injury, or does him a wrong. jenk. Cent. 22.

Lex non cogit impossibilia. The law requires nothing impossible. Co. Litt. 231, b; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 951.

Lex non deficit in justitia exibenda. The law does not fail in showing justice.

Lex non intendit aliquid impossibile. The law intends not anything impossible. 12 Co. 89.

Lex non requirit verificare quod apparet curiae. The law does not require that to be proved, which is apparent to the court. 9 Co. 54.

Lex plus laudatur quando ratione probatur. The law is the more praised when it is consonant to reason.

Lex prospicit, non respicit. The law looks forward, not backward.

Lex punit mendacium. The law punishes falsehood.

Lex rejicit superflua, pugnantia, incongrua. The law rejects superfluous, contradictory and incongruous things.

Lex reprobat moram. The law dislikes delay.

Lex semper dabit remedium. The law always gives a remedy. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2411.

Lexspectat naturae ordinem. The law regards the order of nature. Co. Litt. 197.

Lex succurit ignoranti. The laws succor the ignorant.

Lex semper intendit quod convenit ratione. The law always intends what is agreeable to reason. Co. Litt. 78.

Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur. The law speaks to all with one mouth. 2 Inst. 184.

Libertas inaestimabilis res est. Liberty is an inestimable good. Dig. 50, 17, 106.

Liberum corpus aestimationem non recipit. The body of a freeman does not admit of valuation.

Licet dispositio de interesse furture sit inutilis, tamen potest fieri declaratio praecedens quae fortiatur effectum interveniente novo actu. Although the grant of a future interest be inoperative, yet a declaration precedent may be made, which may take effect, provided a new act intervene. Bacon's Max. Reg. 14.

Locus contractus regit actum. The place of the contract governs the act.

Longa possessio est pacis jus. Long possession is the law of peace. Co. Litt. 6.

Longa possessio parit jus possidendi, et tollit actionem vero domino. Long possession produces the right of possession, and takes away from the true owner his action. Co. Litt. 110.

Longum tempus, et longus usus qui excedit memoria hominum, sufficit pro jure. Long time and long use, beyond the memory of man, suffices for right. Co. Litt. 115.

Loquendum ut vulgus, sentiendum ut docti. we speak as the common people, we must think as the learned. 7 Co. 11.

Magister rerum usus; magistra rerum experientia. Use is the master of things; experience is the mistriss of things. Co. Litt. 69, 229.

Manga negligentia culpa est, magna culpa dolus est. Gross negligence is a fault, gross fault is a fraud. Dig 50, 16, 226.

Magna culpa dolus est. Great neglect is equivalent to fraud. Dig. 50, 16, 226; 2 Spears, R. 256; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 646.

Maihemium est inter crimina majora minimum et inter minora maximum. Mayhem is the least of great crimes, and the greatest of small. Co. Litt. 127.

Mahemium est homicidium inchoatum. Mayhem is incipient homicide. 3 Inst. 118.

Major haeriditas venit unicuique nostrum jure et legibus quam parentibus. A greater inheritance comes to every one of us from right and the laws than from parents. 2 Co. Inst. 56.

Majore paen affectus quam legibus statuta est, non est infamis. One affected with a greater punishment than is provided by law, is not infamous. 4 Co. Inst. 66.

Majus est delictum seipsum occidare quam alium. it is a greater crime to kill one's self than another.

Mala grammatica non vitiat chartam; sed in expositione instrumentorum mala grammatica quoad fieri possit evitanda est. Bad grammar does not vitiate a deed; but in the construction of instruments, bad grammar, as far as it can be done, is to be avoided. 6 Co. 39.

Maledicta est expositio quae corrumpit textum. It is a bad construction which corrupts the text. 4 Co. 35.

Maleficia non debent remanere impunita, et impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. Evil deeds ought not to remain unpunished, for impunity affords continual excitement to the delinquent. 4 Co. 45.

Malificia propositus distinguuntur. Evil deeds are distinguished from evil purposes. Jenk. Cent. 290.

Malitia est acida, est mali animi affectus. Malice is sour, it is the quality of a bad mind. 2 Buls. 49.

Mandatarius terminos sobi positos transgredi non potest. A mandatory cannot exceed the bounds of his authority. Jenk. Cent. 53.

Mandatum nisi gratuitum nullum est. Unless a mandate is gratuitous it is not a mandate. Dig. 17, 1, 4; Inst. 3, 27; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1070.

Manifesta probatione non indigent. Manifest things require no proof. 7 Co. 40.

Maxime ita dicta quia maxima ejus dignitas et certissima auctoritas, atque quod maxim omnibus probetur. A maxim is so called because its dignity is chiefest, and its authority most certain, and because universally approved by all. Co. Litt. 11.

Maxim paci sunt contraria, vis et injuria. The greatest enemies to peace are force and wrong. Co. Litt. 161.

Melior est justitia vere praeveniens quam severe pumens. That justice which justly prevents a crime, is better than that which severely punishes it.

Melior est conditio possidentis et rei quam actoris. Better is the condition of the possessor and that of the defendant than that of the plaintiff. 4 Co. Inst. 180.

Melior est causa possidentis. The cause of the possessor is preferable. Dig. 50, 17, 126, 2,.

Melior est conditio possidentis, ubi neuter jus habet. Better is the condition of the possessor, where neither of the two has a right. Jenk. Cent. 118.

Melius est omnia mala pati quam malo concentire. It is better to suffer every wrong or ill, than to consent to it. 3 Co. Inst. 23.

Melius est recurrere quam malo currere. It is better to recede than to proceed in evil. 4 Inst. 176.

Melius est in tempore occurrere, quam post causam vulneratum remedium quaerere. It is better to restrain or meet a thing in time, than to see a remedy after a wrong has been inflicted. 2 Inst. 299.

Mentiri est contra mentem ire. To lie is to go against the mind. 3 Buls. 260.

Minima paena corporalis est major qualibet pecuniari . The smallest bodily punishment is greater than any pecuniary one. 2 Inst. 220.

Minim mutanda sunt quae certam habuerent interpretationem. Things which have had a certain interpretation are to be altered as little as possible. Co. Litt. 365.

Misera est servitus, ubi jus est vagum aut incertum. It is a miserable slavery where the law is vague or uncertain. 4 Co. Inst. 246.

Mitius imperanti melius paretur. The more mildly one commands the better is he obeyed. 3 Co. Inst. 24.

Mibilia personam sequuntur, immobilia situm. Movable things follow the person, immovable their locality.

Modica circumstantia facti jus mutat. The smallest circumstance may change the law.

Modus et conventio vincunt legem. Manner and agreement overrule the law. 2 Co. 73.

Modus legel dat donationi. The manner gives law to a gift. Co. Litt. 19 a.

Moneta est justum medium et mensura rerum commutabilium, nam per meduim monetae fit omnium rerum conveniens, et justa aestimatio. Money is the just medium and measure of all commutable things, for, by the medium of money, a convenient and just estimation of all things is made. Dav. 18. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 922.

Mora reprobatur in lege. Delay is disapproved of in law.

Multa conceduntur per obliquum quae non conceduntur de directo. Many things are conceded indirectly which are not allowed directly. 6 co. 47. Multa in jure communi contra rationem disputandi pro communi ultilitate introducta sunt. Many things have been introduced into the common law, with a view to the public good, whic are inconsistent with sound reason. Co. Litt. 70; Broom's Max. 67; 2 Co. R. 75. See 3 T. R. 146; 7 T. R. 252.

Multa multo exercitatione facilius quam regulis percipies. You will perceive many things more easily by practice than by rules. 4 Co. Inst. 50.

Multa non vetat lex. quae tamen tacit damnavit. The law forbids many things, which yet it has silently condemned.

Multa transeunt cum universitate quae non per se transeunt. Many things pass as a whole which would not pass separately.

Multi multa, non omnia novit. Many men know many things, no one knows everything. 4 Co. Inst. 348.

Multitudo imperitorum perdit curiam. A multitude of ignorant practitioners destroys a court. 2 Co. Inst. 219.

Natura appetit perfectum, ita et lex. Nature aspires to perfection, and so does the law. Hob. 144.

Natura non facit saltum, ita nec lex. nature makes no leap, nor does the law. Co. Litt. 238.

Natura no facit vacuum, nec lex supervacuum. Nature makes no vacuum, the law no supervacuum. Co. Litt. 79.

Necessarium est quod non potest aliter se habere. That is necessity which cannot be dispensed with.

Necessitas est lex temporis et loci. Necessity is the law of a particular time and place. 8 Co. 69; H. H. P. C. 54.

Necessitaas excusat aut extenuat delicium in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus. Necessity excuses or extentuates delinquency in capital cases, but not in civil. Vide Necessity.

Necessitas facit licitum quod alias non est licitum. Necessity makes that lawful which otherwise is unlawful. 10 Co. 61.

Necessitas inducit privililegium quoad jura privata. Necessity gives a preference with regard to private rights. Bacon's Max. REg. 5.

Necessitas non habet legem. Necessity has no law. Plowd. 18. See Necessity, and 15 Vin. Ab. 534; 22 Vin. Ab. 540.

Necessitas quod cogit, defendit. Necessity defends what it compels. H. H. P. C. 54.

Necessitas vincit legem. Necessity overcomes the law. Hob. 144.

Neminem oportet esse sapientiorem legibus. No man ought to be wiser than the law. Co. Litt. 97.

Nemo admittendus est inhabilitare seipsum. No one is allowed to incapacitate himself. Jenk. Cent. 40. Sed vide "To stultify," and 5 Whart. 371.

Nemo bis punitur por eodem delicto. No one can be punished twice for the same crime or misdemeanor. See Non bis in idem.

Nemo cogitur rem suam vendere, etiam justo pretio. No one is bound to sell his property, even for a just price. Sed vide Eminent Domain.

Nemo contra factum suum venire potest. No man can contradict his own deed. 2 Inst. 66.

Nemo damnum facit, nisi qui id fecit quod facere jus non habet. No one is considered as committing damages, unless he is doing what he has no right to do. dig. 50, 17, 151.

Nemo dat qui non habet. No one can give who does not possess. Jenk. Cent. 250.

Nemo de domo sua extrahi debet. A citizen cannot be taken by force from his house to be conducted before a judge or to prison. Dig. 50, 17. This maxim in favor of Roman liberty is much the same as that "every man's house is his castle."

Nemo debet immiscere se rei alienae ad se nihil pertinenti. No one should interfere in what no way concerns him.

Nemo debet rem suam sine facto aut defectu suo amittere. No one should lose his property without his act or negligence. Co. Litt. 263.

Nemo ex consilio obligatur. No man is bound for the advice he gives.

Nemo in propria causa testis ese debet. No one can be a witness in his own cause. But to this rule there are many exceptions.

Nemo patriam in qua natus est exuere, nec ligeantiae debitum ejurare possit. No man can renounce the country in which he was born, nor abjure the obligation of his allegiance. Co. LItt. 129. Sed vide Allegiance; Expatriation; Naturalization.

Nemo plus juris ad alienum transfere potest, quam ispe habent. One cannot transfer to another a right which he has not. Dig. 50, 17, 54; 10 Pet. 161, 175.

Nemo praesens nisi intelligat. One is not present unless he understands. See Presence.

Nemo potest contra recordum verificare per patriam. No one can verify by the country against a record. The issue upon a record cannot be tried by a jury.

Nemo potest facere per alium quod per se non potest. No one can do that by another which he cannot do by himself.

Nemo potest sibi devere. No one can owe to himself. See Confusion of Rights.

Nemo praesumitur donare. No one is presumed to give.

Nemo praesumitur esse immemor suae aeternae salutis, et maxim in articulo mortis. No man is presumed to be forgetful of his eternal welfare, and particularly at the point of death. 6 Co. 76.

Nemo praesumitur malus. No one is presumed to be bad.

Nemo praesumitru ludere in extremis. No one is presumed to trifle at the point of death.

Nemo prohibetur plures negotiationes sive artes exercere. No one is restrained from exercising several kinds of business or arts. 11 Co. 54.

Nemo prohibetur pluribus defensionibus uti. No one is restrained from using several defences. Co. Litt. 304.

Nemo punitur sine injuri, facto, seu defalto. No one is punished unless for some wrong, act or default. 2 Co. Inst. 287.

Nemo, qui condemnare potest, absolvere non potest. He who may condemn may acquit. Dig. 50, 17, 37.

Nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. No one is bound to accuse himself.

Nemo tenetur ad impossibile. No one is bound to an impossibility.

Nemo tenetur divinare. No one is bound to foretell. 4 Co. 28.

Nemo tenetur informare qui nescit, sed quisquis scire quod informat. No one is bound to inform about a thing he knows not, but he who gives information is bound to know what he says. Lane, 110.

Nemo tenetur seipsam infortunis et periculis exponere. No one is bound to expose himself to misfortune and dangers. Co. Litt. 253.

Nemo videtur fraudare eos qui sciunt, et consentiunt. One cannot complain of having been deceived when he knew the fact and gave his consent. Dig. 50, 17, 145.

Nihil facit error nominis cum de corpore constat. An error in the name is nothing when there is certainty as to the person. 11 Co. 21.

Nihil habet forum ex scen. The court has nothing to do with what is not before it.

Nihil magis justum est quam quod necessarium est. Nothing is more just that what is necessary. Dav. 12.

Nihil perfectum est dum aliquid restat agendum. Nothing is perfect while something remains to be done. 2 co. 9.

Nihil possumus contra veritatem. we can do nothing against truth. Doct. & Stu. Dial. 2, c. 6.

Nihil quod est contra rationem est licitum. Nothing against reason is lawful. Co. Litt. 97.

Nihil quod inconveniens est licitum est. Nothing inconvenient is lawful.

Nihil simul inventum est et perfectum. Nothing is invented and perfected at the same moment. Co. Litt. 230.

Nihil tam naturale est, qu m eo genere quidque dissolvere, quo colligatum est. It is very natural that an obligation should not be dissolved but by the same principles which were observed in contracting it. Dig. 50, 17, 35. See 1 Co. 100; 2 Co. Inst. 359.

Nihil tam conveniens est naturali aequitati, qu m voluntatem domini voluntis rem suam in alium transferre, ratam haberi. Nothing is more conformable to natural equity, than to confirm the will of an owner who desires to transfer his property to another. Inst. 2, 1, 40; 1 Co. 100.

No man is presumed to do anything against nature. 22 Vin. Ab. 154.

No man shall take by deed but parties, unless in remainder.

Necessity creates equity.

Nobiliores et beniginores presumptiones in dubiis sunt praeferendae. When doubts arise the most generous and benign presumptions are to be preferred.

Nomen non sufficit si res non sit de jure aut de facto. A name does not suffice if there be not a thing by law or by fact. 4 Co. 107.

nomina si nescis perit cognitio rerum. If you know not the names of things, the knowledge of things themselves perishes. Co. Litt. 86.

Non auditor perire volens. One who wishes to perish ought not to be heard. Best on Evidence, 385.

Non consentit qui errat. He who errs does not consent. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 581.

Non debet, cui plus licet, quod minus est, non licere. He who is permitted to do the greater, may with greater reason do the less. Dig. 50, 17, 21.

Non decipitur qui scit se decipi. He is not deceived who know himself to be deceived. 5 co. 60.

Non definitur in jure quid sit conatus. What an attempt is, is not defined in law. 6 Co. 42.

Non differunt quae concordant re, tametsi non in verbis iisdem. Those things which agree in substance though not in the same words, do not differ. Jenk. Cent. 70.

Non est arctius vinculum inter homines quam jusjurandum. There is no stronger link among men than an oath. Jenk. Cent. 126.

Non est recedendum communi abservanti . There is no departing from a common observance. 2 Co. 74.

Non impedit clausula derogatoria, quo minus ab eadem potestate res dissolvantur a quibus constitutuntur. A derogatory clause does not prevent things or acts from being dissolved by the same power, by which they were originally made. Bacon's Max. Reg. 19.

Non obligat lex nisi promulgata. A law is not obligatory unless it be promulgated.

Non observata forma, infertur adnullatio actus. When the form is not observed, it is inferred that the act is annulled. 12 Co. 7.

Non praestat impedimentum quod de jure non sortitur effectum. A thing which has no effect in law, is not an impediment. Jenk. Cent. 162.

Non quod dictum est, sed quod factum est, inspicitur. Not what is said, but what is done, is to be regarded. Co. Litt. 36.

Non refert an quis assensum suum praefert verbis, an rebus ipsis et factis. It is immaterial whether a man gives his assent by words or by acts and deeds. 10 Co. 52.

Non refert quid ex aequipolentibus fiat. What may be gathered from words of tantamount meaning, is of no consequence when omitted. 5 Co. 122.

Non refert verbis an factis fit revocatio. It matters not whether a revocation be by words or by acts. Cro. Car. 49.

Non solum quid licet, sed quidest conveniens considerandum, quia nihil quod inconveniens est licitum. Not only what is permitted, but what is proper, is to be considered, because what is improper is illegal. Co. Litt. 66.

Non videntur qui errant consentire. He who errs is not considered as consenting. Dig. 50, 17, 116.

Non videtur consensum retinuisse si quis ex praescripto minantis aliquid immutavit. He does not appear to have retained his consent, if he has changed anything through the means of a party threatening. Bacon's Max. Reg. 33.

Novatio non praesumitur. A novation is not presumed. See Novation.

Novitas non tam utilitate prodest quam novitate perturbat. Novelty benefits not so much by its utility, as it disturbs by its novelty. Jenk. Cent. 167.

Novum judicium non dat novum jus, sed declarat antiquum. A new judgment does not make a new law, but declares the old. 10 Co. 42.

Nul ne doit s'enrichir aux depens des autres. No one ought to enrich himself at the expense of others.

Nul prendra advantage de son tort demesne. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong.

Nulla impossibilia aut inhonesta sunt praesumenda. Impossibilities and dishonesty are not to be presumed. Co. Litt. 78.

Obedientia est legis essentia. Obedience is the essence of the law. 11 Co. 100.

Officium nemini debet esse damnosum. An office ought to be injurious to no one.

Omne actum ab intentione agentis est judicandum. Every act is to be estimated by the intention of the doer.

Omne sacramentum debet esse de certa scienti . Every oath ought to be founded on certain knowledge. 4 Co. Inst. 279.

Omnia delicta in aperto leviora sunt. All crimes committed openly are considered lighter. 8 co. 127.

Omnia praesumuntur contra spoliatorem. All things are presumed against a wrong doer.

Omnia praesumuntur legitime facta donec probetur in contrarium. All things are presumed to be done legitimately, until the contrary is proved. Co. Litt. 232.

Omnia praesumuntur rite esse acta. All things are presumed to be done in due form.

Omnia praesumuntur solemniter esse acta. All things are presumed to be done solemnly. Co. Litt. 6.

Omnis actio est loquela. Every action is a complaint. Co. Litt. 292.

Omnis conclusio boni et veri judicii sequitur ex bonis et veris praemissis et dictis juratorem. Every conclusion of a good and true judgment arises from good and true premises, and the sayings of jurors. Co. Litt. 226.

Omnis consensus t ollit errorem. Every consent removes error. 2 Inst. 123.

Omnis definitio in jure periculosa est; parum est enim ut non subverti posset. Every devinition in law is perilous, and but a little may reverse it. Dig. 50, 17, 202.

Omnis exceptio est ipsa quoque regula. An exception is, in itself, a rule.

Omnis interpretatio vel declarat, vel extendit, vel restringit. Every interpretation either declares, extends or restrains.

Omnis regula suas patitur exceptiones. All rules of law are liable to exceptions.

Omnis privatio praesupponit habitum. Every privation presupposes former enjoyment. Co. Litt. 339.

Omnis ratihabitio retro trahitur et mandato aequiparatur. Every consent given to what has already been done, has a retrospective effect and equals a command. Co. Litt. 207.

Once a fraud, always a fraud. 13 Vin. Ab. 539.

Once a recompense always a recompense. 19 Vin. Ab. 277.

One should be just before he is generous.

Oportet quod certa res deducatur in judicium. A thing, to be brought to judgment, must be certain or definite. Jenk. Cent. 84.

Oportet quod certa sit res venditur. A thing, to be sold, must be certain or definite.

Optima est lex, quae minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis. That is the best system of law which confides as little as possible to the discretion of the judge. Bac. De Aug. Sci. Aph. 46.

Optimam esse legem, quae minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis; id quod certitudo ejus praestat. That law is the best which leaves the least discretion to the judge; and this is an advantage which results from certainty. Bacon, De Aug. Sc. Aph. 8.

Optimus judex, qui minimum sibi. He is the best judge who relies as little as possible on his own discretion. Bac. De Aug. Sci. Aph. 46.

Optimus interpretandi modus est sic legis interpretare ut leges legibus accordant. The best mode of interpreting laws is to make them accord. 8 Co. 169.

Ordine placitandi servato, servatur et jus. The order of pleading being preserved, the law is preserved. Co. Litt. 363.

Origo rei inspici debet. The origin of a thing ought to be inquired into. 1 Co. 99.

Paci sunt maxime contraria, vis et injuria. Force and wrong are greatly contrary to peace. Co. Litt. 161.

Pacta privata juri publico derogare non possunt. Private contracts cannot derogate from the public law. 7 Co. 23.

Pacto aliquod licitum est, quid sine pacto non admittitur. By a contract something is permitted, which, without it, could not be admitted. Co. Litt. 166.

Par in parem imperium non habet. An equal has no power over an equal. Jenk. Cent. 174. Example: One of two judges of the same court cannot commit the other for contempt.

paribus sententiis reus absolvitur. When opinions are equal, a defendant is acquitted. 4 Inst. 64.

Parte quacumque integranta sublata, tollitur totum. An integral part being taken away, the whole is taken away. 3 Co. 41.

Partus sequitur ventrem. The offspring follow the condition of the mother. This is the law in the case of slaves and animals; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 167, 502; but with regard to freemen, children follow the condition of the father.

Parum differunt quae re concordant. Things differ but little which agree in substance. 2 Buls. 86.

Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima. Offences against nature are the heaviest. 3 Co. Inst. 20.

Peccatum peccato addit qui culpae quam facit patrocinium defensionis adjungit. He adds one offence to another, who, when he commits a crime, joins to it the protection of a defence. 5 Co. 49.

Per rerum naturam, factum negantis nulla probatio est. It is in the nature of things that he who denies a fact is not bound to prove it.

Perfectum est cui nihil deest secundum suae perfectionis vel naturae modum. That is perfect which wants nothing in addition to the measure of its perfection or nature. Hob. 151.

Periculum rei venditae, nondum traditae, est emptoris. The purchaser runs the risk of the loss of a thing sold, though not delivered. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 939; 4 B. & C. 941; 4 B. & C. 481.

Perpetua lex est, nullam legem humanum ac positivam perpetuam esse; et clausula quae abrogationem excludit initio non valet. It is a perpetual law that no human or positive law can be perpetual; and a clause in a law which precludes the power of abrogation is void ab initio. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 19.

Perpetuities are odious in law and equity.

Perspicua vera non sunt probanda. Plain truths need not be proved. Co. Litt. 16.

Pirata est hostis humani generis. A pirate is an enemy of the human race. 3 Co. Inst. 113.

Posito uno oppositorum negatur alterum. One of two opposite positions being affirmed, the other is denied. 3 Ro..l R. 422.

Possessio est quasi pedis positio. Possession is, as it were, the position of the foot. 3 Co. 42.

Possession is a good title, where no better title appears. 20 Vin. Ab. 278.

Possessor has right against all men but him who has the very right.

Potentia non est nisi ad bonum. Power is not conferred, but for the public good.

Potentia debet sequi justiciam, non antecedere. Power ought to follow, not to precede justice. 3 Buls. 199.

Potest quis renunciare pro se, et suis, juri quod pro se introductum est. A man may relinquish, for himself and his heirs, a right which was introduced for his own benefit. See 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 83.

Potestas strict interpretatur. Power should be strictly interpreted.

Potior est conditio defendentis. Better is the condition of the defendant, than that of the plaintiff.

Potior est conditio possidentis. Better is the condition of the possessor.

Praesumptio violenta, plena probatio. Strong presumption is full proof.

Praesumptio violenta valet in lege. Strong presumption avails in law.

Praetextu liciti non debet admitti illicitum. Under pretext of legality, what is illegal ought not to be admitted. 10 Co. 88.

Precedents has as much law as justice.

Praesentia corporis tollit errorem nominis, et veritas nominis tollit errorem demonstrationis. The presence of the body cures the error in the name; the truth of the name cures an error in the description. Bacon's Max. Reg. 25.

Pretium succedit in locum rei. The price stands in the place of the thing sold. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 939.

Prima pars aequitatis aequalitas. The radical element of justice is equality.

Principia probant, non probantur. Principles prove, they are not proved. 3 Co. 40. See Principles.

Principiorum non est ratio. There is no reasoning of principles. 2 Buls. 239. See Principles.

Principium est potissima pars cujusque rei. The principle of a thing is its most powerful part. 10 Co. 49.

Prior tempore, potior jure. He who is before in time, is preferred in right.

Privatorum conventio juri publico non derogat. Private agreements cannot derogate from public law. Dig. 50, 17, 45, 1.

Privilegium est quasi privata lex. A privilege is, as it were, a private law. 2 Buls. 8.

Probandi necessitas incumbit illi ui agit. The necessity of proving lies with him who makes the charge.

Probationes debent esse evidentes, id est, perspicuae et faciles intelligi. Proofs ought to be made evident, that is, clear and easy to be understood. Co. Litt. 283.

Probatis extremis, praesumitur media. The extremes being proved, the intermediate proceedings are presumed. 1 Greenl. Ev. 20.

Processus legis est gravis vexatio, executio legis coronat opus. The process of the law is a grievous vexation; the execution of the law crowns the work. Co. Litt. 289.

Prohibetur ne quis faciat in suo quod nocere possit alieno. It is prohibited to do on one's own property that which may injure another's. 9 co. 59.

Propinquior excludit propinquum; propinquus remotum; et remotus remotiorem. He who is nearer excludes him who is near; he who is near, him who is remote; he who is remote, him who is more remote. co. Litt. 10.

Quae ad unum finem loquuta sunt; non debent ad alium detorqueri. Words spoken to one end, ought not to be perverted to another. 4 Co. 14.

Quae cohaerent personae person separari nequeunt. Things which belong to the person ought not to be separated from the person. Jenk. Cent. 28.

Quae communi legi derogant stricte interpretantur. Laws which derogate from the common law ought to be strictly construed. Jenk. Cent. 231.

Quae dubitationis caus tollendae inseruntur communem legem non laedunt. Whatever is inserted for the purpose of removing doubt, does not hurt or affect the common law. Co. Litt. 205.

Quae incontinenti vel certo fiunt inesse videntur. Whatever is done directly and certainly, appears already in existence. Co. Litt. 236.

Quae inter alios acta sunt nemini nocere debent, sed prodesse possunt. Transactions between strangers may benefit, but cannot injure, persons who are parties to them. 6 Co. 1.

Quaelibet jurisdictio cancellos suos habet. Every jurisdiction has its bounds.

Qualibet paena corporalis, quam vis minima, major est qu libet paen pecuniari . Every corporal punishment, although the very least, is greater than pecuniary punishment. 3 Inst. 220.

Quaeras de dubiis, legem bene discere si vis. Inquire into them, is the way to know what things are really true. Litt. 443.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, concedere videtur id sine quo res ipsa esse non potest. When the law gives anything, it gives the means of obtaining it. 5 Co. 47.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, omnia incidentia tacite conceduntur. When the law gives anything, it gives tacitly what is incident to it. 2 Co. Inst. 326; Hob. 234.

Quando licet id quod majus, videtur licere id quod minus. When the greater is allowed, the less seems to be allowed also.

Quando verba et mens congruunt, non est interpretationi locus. When the words and the mind agree, there is no place for interpretation.

Quem admodum ad quaestionem facti non respondent judices, ita ad quaestionem juris non respondent juratores. In the same manner that judges do not answer to questions of fact, so jurors do not answer to questions of law. Co. Litt. 295.

Qui accusat integrae famae sit et non criminosus. Let him who accuses be of a clear fame, and not criminal. 3 Co. Inst. 26.

Qui adimit medium, dirimit finem. He who takes away the means, destroys the end. Co. Litt. 161.

Qui destruit medium, destruit finem. He who destroys the means, destroys the end. 11 Co. 51; Shep. To. 342.

Qui aliquid staruerit parte inaudita altera, aequum licet dixerit, haud aequum facerit. He who decides anything, a party being unheard, though he should decide right, does wrong. 6 Co. 52.

Qui bene interrogat, bene docet. He who questions well, learns well. 3 Buls. 227.

Qui bene distinguit, bene docet. He who distinguishes well, learns well. 2 Co. Inst. 470.

Qui confirmat nihil dat. He who confirms does not give. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2069.

Qui cum alio contrahit, vel est, vel debet esse non ignarus conditio ejus. He who contracts, knows, or ought to know, the quality of the person with whom he contracts, otherwise he is not excusable. Dig. 50, 17, 19; 2 Hagg. Consist. Rep. 61.

Qui evertit causam, evertit causatum futurum. He who overthrows the cause, overthrows its future effects. 10 Co. 51.

Qui facit per alium facit per se. He who acts by or through another, acts for himself. 1 Bl. Com. 429; Story, Ag. 440; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1273, 1335, 1336; 7 Man. & Gr. 32, 33.

Qui habet jurisdictionem absolvendi, habet jurisdictionem ligandi. He who has jurisdiction to loosen, has jurisdiction to bind. 12 Co. 59.

Qui jure suo utitur, nemini facit injuriam. He who uses his legal rights, harms no one.

Qui jussu judicis aliquod fuerit non videtur dolo malo fecisse, quia parere necesse est. He who does anything by command of a judge, will not be supposed to have acted from an improper motive, because it was necessary to obey. 10 Co. 76.

Qui male agit, odit lucem. He who acts badly, hates the light. 7 Co. 66.

Qui non libere veritatem pronunciat, proditor est verilatis. He who does not willingly speak the truth, is a betrayer of the truth.

Qui non obstat quod obstare potest facere videtur. He who does not prevent what he can, seems to commit the thing. 2 Co. Inst. 146.

Qui non prohibit quod prohibere potest assentire videtur. He who does not forbid what he can forbid, seems to assent. 2 Inst. 305.

Qui non propulsat injuriam quando potest, infert. He who does not repel a wrong when he can, induces it. Jenk. Cent. 271.

Qui potest et debet vetare, jubet. He who can and ought to forbid, and does not, commands.

Qui prior est tempore, potior est jure. He who is first or before in time, is stronger in right. Co. Litt. 14 a; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 64 d; Story Bailm. 312; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 952; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3728.

Qui semel actionem renunciaverit, amplius repetere non potest. He who renounces his action once, cannot any more repeat it. 8 Co. 59. See Retraxit.

Qui tacet consentire videtur. He who is silent appears to consent. Jenk. Cent. 32.

Qui tardius solvit, minus solvit. He who pays tardily, pays less than he ought. Jenk.Cent. 38.

Quicpuid acquiritur servo, acquiritur domino. Whatever is acquired by the servant, is acquired for the master. 15 Bin. Ab. 327.

Qnicquid est contra normam recti est injuria. Whatever is against the rule of right, is a wrong. 3 Buls. 313.

Quicquid in excessu actum est, lege prohibitur. Whatever is done in excess is prohibited by law. 2 Co. Inst. 107.

Quod ad jus naturale attinet, omnes homenes aequales sunt. All men are equal before the natural law. Dig. 50, 17, 32.

Quod alias bonum et justum est, si per vim vel fraudem petatur, malum et injustum efficitur. What is otherwise good and just, if sought by force or fraud, becomes bad and unjust. 3 Co. 78.

Quod constat clare, non debet verificari. What is clearly apparent need not be proved.

Quod contra legem fit, pro infecto habetur. What is done contrary to the law, is considered as not done. 4 Co. 31. No one can derive any advantage from such an act.

Quod est ex necessitate nunquam introducitor, nisi quando necessarium. What is introduced of necessity, is never introduced except when necessary. 2 Roll. R. 512.

Quod est necessarium est licitum. What is necessary is lawful.

Quod factum est, cum in obscuro sit, ex affectione cujusque capit interpretationem. Doubtful and ambigious clauses ought to be construed according to the intentions of the parties. Dig. 50, 17, 168, 1.

Quod fieri non debet, factum valet. What ought not to be done, when done, is valid. 5 Co. 38.

Quod inconsulto fecimus, consultius revocemus. What is done without consideration or reflection, upon better consideration we should revoke or undo.

Quod meum est sine me auferri non potest. What is mine cannot be taken away without my consent. Jenk. Cent. 251. Sed vide Eminent Domain.

Quod necessitas cogit, defendit. What necessity forces, it justifies. Hal. Pl. Cr. 54.

Quod per recordum probatum, non debet esse negatum. What is proved by the record, ought not to be denied.

Quod prius est verius est; et quod prius est tempore potius est jure. What is first is truest; and what comes first in time, is best in law. Co. Litt. 347.

Quod quisquis norat in hoc se exerceat. Let every one employ himself in what he knows. 11 Co. 10.

Quotiens dubia interpretatio libertatis est, secundum libertatem respondendum erit. Whenever there is a doubt between liberty and slavery, the decision must be in favor of liberty. Dig. 50, 17, 20.

Ratio est radius divini luminis. Reason is a ray of divine light. Co. Litt. 232.

Ratio et auctoritas duo clarisima mundi limina. Reason and authority are the two brightest lights in the world. 4 Co. Inst. 320.

Ratio in jure aequitas integra. Reason in law is perfect equity.

Ratio legis est anima legis. The reason of the law is the soul of the law.

Ratio non clauditur loco. Reason is not confined to any place.

Re, verbis, scripto, consensu, traditione, junctura vestes, sumere pacta solent. Compacts are accustomed to be clothed by thing itself, by words, by writing, by consent, by delivery. Plow. 161.

Recorda sunt vestigia vetustatis et veritatis. Records are vestiges of antiquity and truth. 2 Roll. R. 296.

Recurrendum est ad extraordinarium quando non valet ordinarium. we must have recourse to what is extraordinary, when what is ordinary fails.

Regula pro lege, si deficit lex. In default of the law, the maxim rules.

REgulariter non valet pactum dare mea non alienanda. Regularly a contract not to alienate my property is not binding. Co. Litt. 223.

Remedies for rights are ever favorably extended. 18 Vin. Ab. 521.

Repellitur a sacramento infamis. An infamous person is repelled or prevented from taking an oath. Co. Litt. 158.

Reprobata pecunia liberat solventum. Money refused liberates the debtor. 9 Co. 79. But this must be understood with a qualification. See Tender.

Reputatio est vulgaris opinio ubi non est veritas. Reputation is a vulgar opinion where there is no truth. 4 Co. 107. But see, Character.

Rerum ordo confunditur, si unicuique jurisdictio non servetur. The order of things is confounded if every one preserves not his jurisdiction. 4 Co. Inst. Proem.

Rerum suarum quilibet est moderator et arbiter. Every one is the manager and disposer of his own. Co. Litt. 233.

Res denominator a principaliori parte. A thing is named from its principal part. 5 Co. 47.

Res per pecuniam aestimatur, et non pecunia per res. The value of a thing is estimated by its worth in money, and the value of money is not estimated by reference to one thing. 9 Co. 76; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 922.

Res perit domino suo. The destruction of the thing is the loss of its owner. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1456, 1466.

Resignatio est juris porprii spontanea refutatio. Resignation is the spontaneous relinquishment of one's own right. Godb. 284.

Responsio unius non omnino auditur. The answer of one witness shall not be heard at all. 1 Greenl. Ev. 260. This is a maxim of the civil law, where everything must be proved by two witnesses.

Rights never die.

Sacramentum habet in se tres comites, varitatem, justitiam et judicium; veritas habenda est in jurato; justitia et justicium in judice. An oath has in it three component parts - truth, justice and judgment; truth in the party swearing; justice and judgment in the judge administering the oath. 3 Co. Inst. 160.

Sacramentum si fatuum fuerit, licet falsum, tamen non committit perjurium. A foolish oath, though false, makes not perjury. 2 Co. Inst. 167.

Scientia et volunti non fit injuria. A wrong is not done to one who knows and wills it.

Scientia utrimque per pares contrahentes facit. Equal knowledge on both sides makes the contracting parties equal.

Scire leges, non hoc est verba eorum tenere, sed vim et potestatem. To know the laws, is not to observe their mere words, but their force and power. Dig. 1, 3, 17.

Scire proprie est, rem ratione et per causam cognoscere. To know properly is to know the reason and cause of a thing. Co. Litt. 183.

Scribere est agere. To write is to act. 2 Roll. R. 89.

Scriptae obligationes scriptis tolluntur, et nude consensus obligatio, contrario consensu dissolvitur. Written obligations are dissolved by writing, and obligations of naked assent by similar naked assent.

Semper necessitas probandi incumbit qui agit. The claimant is always bound to prove: the burden of proof lies on him.

Sermo index animi. Speech is an index of the mind. 5 Co. 118.

Sermo relatus ad personam, intelligi debet de conditione personae. A speech relating to the person is to be understood as relating to his condition. 4 Co. 16.

Si quis custos fraudem pupillo fecerit, a tutela removendus est. If a guardian behave fraudently to his ward, he shall be removed from the guardianship. Jenk. Cent. 39.

Si quid universitate debetur singulis non debetur, nec quod debet, universitas singuli debent. If anything is due to a corporation, it is not due to the individual members of it, nor do the members individually owe what the corporation owes. Dig. 3, 4, 7.

Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas. So use your own as not to injure another's property. 1 Bl. Com. 306; Broom's max. 160; 4 McCord, 472; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2379.

Silent leges inter arma. laws are silent amidst arms. 4 Co. Inst. 70.

Solutio pretii, emptiones loco habetur. The payment of the price stands in the place of a sale.

Spoliatus debet ante omnia restitui. Spoil ought to be restored before anything else. 2 Co. Inst. 714.

Stabit praesumptio donec probetur in contrarium. A presumption will stand good until the contrary is proved. Hob. 297.

Statutum affirmativum non derogat communi legi. An affirmative statute does not take from the common law. Jenk. Cent. 24.

Statutum generaliter est intelligendum quaudo verva statuti sunt specialia, ratio autem generalis. When the words of a statute are special, but the reason of it general, it is to be understood generally. 10 Co. 101.

Statutum speciale statuto speciali non derogat. One special statute does not take away from another special statute. Jenk. Cent. 199.

Sublata causa tollitur effectus. Remove the cause and the effect will cease. 2 Bl. Com. 203.

Tacita quaedam habentur pro expressis. Things silent are sometimes considered as expressed. 8 Co. 40.

Testis de visu praeponderat aliis. An eye witness outweighs others. 4 Co. Inst. 470.

Testis nemo in su caus esse potest. No one can be a witness in his own cause.

Testis oculatus unus plus valet quam auriti decem. One eye witness is worth ten ear witnesses. See 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3154.

Things shall not be void which may possibly be good.

Trusts survive.

Tout ce que la loi ne defend pas est permis. Everything is permitted, which is not forbidden by law.

Ubi cessat remedium ordinarium ibi decurritur ad extraordinarium. When a common remedy ceases to be of service, recourse must be had to an extraordinary one. 4 Co. 93.

Ubi damna dantur, victus victori in expensis condemnari debet. Where damages are given, the losing party should pay the costs of the victor. 2 Inst. 289.

Ubi factum nullum ibi sortia nulla. Where there is no deed committed, there can be no consequence. 4 Co. 43.

Ubi jus, ibi remedium. Where there is a right, there is a remedy. 1 T. R. 512; Co. Litt. 197, b; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2411; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3726.

Ubi lex aliquem cogit ostendere causam, necesse est quod causa sit justa et letitima. Where the law compels a man to show cause, the cause ought to be just and legal. 2 Co. Inst. 269.

Ubi non est condendi auctoritas, ibi non est parendi necessitas. Where there is no authority to enforce, there is no authority to obey. Dav. 69.

Ubi non est directa lex, standum est arbitrio judicis, vel procedendum ad similia. Where there is no direct law, the opinion of the judges ought to be taken, or reference made to similar cases.

Ubi non est lex, non est transgressio quoad mundum. Where there is no law there is no transgression, as it regards the world.

Unumquodque eodem modo quo colligatum est dissolvitur. In the same manner in which a thing is bound, it is loosened. 2 Roll. Rep. 39.

Unumquodque est id quod est principalius in ipso. That which is the principal part of a thing is the thing itself. Hob. 123.

Unumquodque dissolvatur eo modo quo colligatur. Everything is dissolved by the same mode in which it is bound together.

Usury is odious in law.

Verba dicta de persona, intelligi debent de conditione personae. Words spoken of the person are to be understood of the condition of the person. 2 Roll. R. 72.

Verba fortius accipientur contra proferentum. Words are to be taken most strongly against him who uses them. Bacon's Max. REg. 3; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 661.

Verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservire. Words ought to be made subservient to the intent, not contrary to it. 8 Co. 94.

Verba ita sunt intelligenda, ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Words are to be so understood that the subject-matter may be preserved rather than destroyed. Bacon's Max. in Reg. 3.

Vigilantibus et non dormientibus serviunt leges. The laws serve the vigilant, not those who sleep upon their rights. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2327. See Laches.

Vis legibus est inimica. Force is inimical to the laws. 3 Co. inst. 176.

Vitium clerici nocere non debet. Clerical errors ought not to hurt.

Volunti non fit injuria. He who consents cannot receive an injury. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2279, 2327; 4 T. R. 657; Shelf. on mar. & Div. 449.

When the common law and statute law concur, the common law is to be preferred. 4 Co. 71.

When the law presumes the affirmative, the negative is to be proved. 1 Roll. R. 83; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3063, 3090.

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